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Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Journal of Italian Translation - Vol. IX, Spring and Fall Luigi Bonaffini. All Luigi Bonafini translations are published with the original text. It also publishes essays and reviews dealing with Italian Associate Editors translation. It is published twice a year. Gaetano Cipolla Michael Palma Submissions should be in electronic form. Trans- Joseph Perricone lations must be accompanied by the original texts Assistant Editor and brief proiles of the translator and the author.
Brooklyn, NY Geoffrey Brock or l. Marco Sonzogni Payments in U. Gibellina was eventually rebuilt in a new location. The old roads remained as paths through a labyrinth. I was struck by how my experience of this place relected my experience, as a sec- ond generation Italian-American, of looking into my cultural heri- tage with contradictory feelings of both connection and distance.
Tracings and graphite rubbings are the initial mark making processes that generate these drawings. As indexical marks, they embody aspects of both documentation and absence - something I relate to the buried town of Gibellina and my distant heritage. The drawing approach that follows is a layering of line, tonality, and erasure into the two surfaces that inform the work. Maps, ranging from geological formations to celestial bod- ies, invite me into a realm of memory and imagination.
The literal coordinates of lesh and stone transition into the poetry of evocative mapping. All drawings are: Garage compreso by Paola Ferrarini Montanari Selected Poems , translated with an introduction by Adria Bernardi. Chelsea Editions, by Santi Buscemi Legas , by Marco Scalabrino She loved Shakespeare in a time when very few knew of him in Italy and used her English knowledge to write an Italian Othello, Macbeth and Coriolanus Renier, Alleged to have been the translator of the translators, her translations were scarcely considered even by her biographers who remember her as the author of the Origine delle Feste Veneziane Renier, Nonetheless, the comparison between the two texts reveals the presence of the same author, in particular in the reiteration of the same themes and especially in the two prefaces.
As a matter of fact, her experience in translation was very important to her development as a writer and it is evident in her choice of writing her original work in two languages, Italian and French. The Shakespearian translator: It is important to stress she is the irst one as there are still scholars who deny her role in introducing Shakespeare to the Italian public.
It could be probably astonishing to realize that William Shake- speare was more or less a complete unknown in Italy at least until the nineteenth century, but it is not a good reason for denying her the consideration she deserves. Unfortunately even recently differ- ent scholars have been entitled of the worth of being the irst Ital- ian translators of Shakespeare, I refer to Valentini, Verri and even Gritti.
Verri translated Hamlet and Othello, but he was not satisied by his work as we can read in his letters and he did not publish them. It is not uncommon for a translator to be forgotten. As a matter of fact, even the manifold existence of the same text in many ver- sions pays its contribution to the neglected condition of the transla- tor, whose many names disappear in favour of the original author.
If these same reasons occurred even in this circumstance, there is also a particular consideration that must be taken into account; the translator being not only a translator and consequently lower in status in comparison to the writer, but also a female translator and writer. It may not seem relevant, but it is necessary to consider the context in which her translation was born and also the importance of the author she chose to translate.
In fact, if there is an exception to the rule of indifference to translation, it could be made for famous writers who happen to be translators and for the irst translators of very important authors, as is the case. Giustina Renier published her Italian versions of Shakespeare in In particular, she translated Othello, Macbeth and Coriolanus. Her translations should be taken into even greater account when considering the scarce knowledge of Shakespeare in Italy at the time and the bias attached to his works due to the negative critique given them by Voltaire.
This was an opinion absolutely unquestionable for the most part of Italian scholars at the time. Actually, it was exactly this scarce knowledge that made her task easier, on account of the possible indifference which they could be received that at least could save her from blanket accusa- tions. In fact, as a woman, it was not considered proper to write. And if translation could be bestowed on her by the assumed absence of originality, which prevented it from at least being considered something she had written, it was still considered quite daring to translate an author of importance, most of all a classical author.
This was due to the belief that women could not learn Greek or Latin. In accordance with the rule of the day and considering the scarce relevance of Shakespeare at that period in Italy, her translations seem to have passed unnoticed. Apart from some references in the correspondence of her friends, I did not manage to ind any hint of them in any journal, as they would have never been published. The biographer in question is Vittorio Malamani who published his book in It is important to stress the date, not only due to the different context in which he writes, but also as Shakespeare had become a popular author in Italy by that time, whose plays had been completely translated by differ- ent translators and after some unlucky attempts, also successfully performed.
It could be argued that, the name of Shakespeare being now a very popular one elevated to the status of a classical author and referred to as a point of reference by writers and scholars, even his translations have come out of obscurity and become a matter of importance, no longer within the reach of a woman. Such a considera- tion seems to assume a more practical edge due to another peculiar circumstance: Even though this is evident by the analysis of the versions, she seems still to be under examination as the concerns of some scholars point out.
What is questioned is the very existence of her work, since as a woman she could not have the erudition evident in the work, not only in the text but also in the notes. But actually the charges went even further. Actually, it is unquestionably true that Cesarotti read her translations, sent to him by Renier herself to have his opinion on them as their correspondence points out.
But there is no evidence of this either in it or in the very translations of any Cesarotti rewriting. Instead there are inklings of the contrary. In fact in one of his letters Cesarotti2, in attempting to convince Renier to change something in her introduction, states she did not love using others things and again in another letter he sent her a new introduction to Coriolanus, which she actually did not use.
But if the absence of concrete evidence is not enough to clear her from accusations, it is the analysis of the text that speaks in her favour. Apart from the point that it is not reasonably evident why a translator of the translators one should in any case be more indictable, unless it is not previously stated that to be a translator is reason for shame. In any case it is possible to clear her of such an indictment through a comparison between her translations and the French ones.
But there is something more that must be considered in order to form a complete portrait of this author, and which could again testify to the originality of her work. It is the presence of some topics of interest both in her translations and in her historical essay Origine delle Feste Veneziane, topics which seem to have irst attracted her concern in the Shakespearian translations and appear again in her original work, more scattered this time, as the work is quite ex- tensive.
In any case still there to point out what is totally particular about the author-translator. In this regard, it is important to consider irstly her translations. A work conceived several years before the publication of her essay and so potentially important in the reading of her following works. This proceeding, if on one hand shows without any doubt what she owed to Le Tourneur, on the other pointed out the original parts of her translations. It could be argued that she had just copied the French introduction.
In the irst of her own sentences, she apologizes for what she knows was not allowed to a woman: In anticipation of possible critics she is the irst to make amends and give an explana- tion as she states: And she adds: So he teaches us it is better to take a proportional means between too strict a faithfulness which wears out, and excessive liberty which falsiies. She acknowledges the dificulties of her work and states, under cover of a quotation, what she thinks a literary translation should be.
Something which could never set aside the literary creation, as the original is a work of art. But at the same time, it must somehow be respectful of it: While not at all new in the debate about literary translation, this consideration reveals at least her to be aware of what has been said about translation by scholars and translators. In fact she says: I will try, as far as I can, to follow these rules, and not to defraud my readers of some peculiar sentences, which, to comply with our language wit, I have to leave out in translation, I will quote them at the end of the Tragedy in the exact verbal version.
She again makes amends for translating. In fact, she states she has cut some things. But in accordance with what she said about translation, she acknowledges her cuttings in notes. Furthermore, she herself avows her debts to Le Tourneur, whose translations she used in order to do a good job and whose name is extensively quoted, but speciies that not all the notes are taken from his versions. What she further states points out even more clearly her concerns about the receiving of her translation and because of her fears, she goes on to explain in her modus operandi.
She says: This may be the only topic a woman can discuss without fear of the accusations of men. She is particularly interested in reactions to theatrical perfor- mances, in feelings aroused by plays, subject proper to a woman and for this reason she says she will talk about that in the particular introductions she wrote to each play, stressing anyway her reading of what scholars wrote about it. Finally, her last passage, which is the most important as at its heart it is possible to read the purpose of all her works.
In her inal sentence she says: It is not her love of Shakespeare, not her interest in the particular subjects of the plays she translated that urged her to be a translator. On account of this statement it is in fact possible to read also the main reason which governed her se- lection of the Shakespearian plays she translated. As stated before, she translated only three plays by Shakespeare, Othello, Macbeth and Coriolanus.
But Le Tourneur translated all the plays. It could be argued that she selected just these three plays for some particular reason. Considering the tragedies in question, it is striking to notice the presence of very strong women in all of them. Desdemona, Lady Macbeth and Volumnia are in fact protagonists of the different plays and share the same very strong nature and attitude to life. All of them take decisions, they act in irst person in order to get what they want and they all are struck down by those very decisions.
It is what hap- pens to Desdemona.
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The Novice Training Grounds is a facility of which all new characters are sent to as a Novice. It contains many tutorials, free EXP and items to new players. The training grounds has 4 original maps, and 6 maps that are identical except for the monsters they hold. The training grounds has no Kafra storage or Mail service, and thus no way to recive items from outside the grounds. The training grounds has many areas that are normally inacessable, but are accessable via Fly Wings.
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I stopped around [ cant really remember ]. Nothing even came close to beating it as the best game ever created imo. I'm not quitting Rose yet, things been wonderful there and I hope to see it grow more. I decided to download Ro again last night and been playing around with it, the nostalgic feeling just came punching every mili inches of my memory, this used to be my second home. Many things have changed now , many new jobs , skills and stuffs.
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Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. Books by Language. Monday - qazur day 9: L, Intel 2. Models will vary.
The Criatura Academy is the new official novice area and tutorial. Below you will find a detailed guide for all the available quests; for a short video guide on how to do only what you need to, click here thanks to salvaire and Llamacorn! Your new character starts in a room on a ship, following the navigation will lead you out of the portal. Once outside, you will see a Wounded Swordsman with a quest icon over his head. He tells you to find the captain without him. Leave through the bottom portal to leave the ship, where you will find Captain Carocc, also with a quest icon above his head. Talk to him and he will tell you about a ship that will take you to Izlude, but first he gives you a quest to kill Porings to get lumber for the ship repairs. The lumber ends up in your inventory automatically after you kill a Poring.
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